A) What Is a Flow Meter?
A flow meter or sensor measures or counts gas or liquid flow. It is also known by other names, such as
- flow gauge
- flow indicator
- flow rate sensor
- liquid meter.
It needs special flow rates to maintain the efficiency of industrial equipment and processes. It is also required to analyze the network’s water balance and load management. Furthermore, maintaining the quality of the product needs accurate flow measurement.
Part of the Flow meter
There are three main parts of the flow meter. These are also known as the
- Primary device.
- Transmitter or pressure transmitter
The transmitter and transducer are heavily codependent on each other. Yet, the transducer senses fluid stream via the primary devices. The transmitter translates the data from the transducers into a signal that can be read.
Essential Factors to Consider While Choosing the Type of Flow Meter.
- Line pressure
- Flow range
- Process space and condition like line size, the line above or below the ground.
- Rigidity of construction
- Advanced features
- Fluid/gas properties
Applications of Flow meter
- Monitor the water leakage
- Apply in water distribution heating system
- Use in the aeration process
- Apply in sludge monitoring
- Use in the wastewater treatment process
- Old water pipeline flow monitoring
- Apply in RO plant
- Use in biogas measurement
Design of Flow Meter
- Manufacturing process
The manufacturers must create, acquire, and assemble the transmitters and transducers to build the flow meter. They put these parts in an inner or outer conduit or pipe. Moreover, they also involve an output signal system for real-time flow volume measurement.
- Material of Construction
Flow meters are mostly built with material that can withstand whatever environment or material they are. Ideally, the materials will give the optimum function and durability. Typically, the material used for manufacturing flow meters are
- Stainless steel
- PVC etc.
Design Consideration and Customization
Yet, to fulfill the specific needs of their application, these instruments can vary in
- measurement techniques
1/2″ and 3/8″
Some flow meters are built to work while exposed to volatile liquids. Yet, the others have to handle a large volume of fluids. Some have to measure mass rather than volume. All these factors contribute to the enormous diversity in the flow meter design. Other essential elements include operating temperature range, pressure, and cleanliness.
|Size||Pressure Rating||Inner pipe diameter|
|DN 40||PN 40||43.1|
|DN 50||PN 40||54.5|
|DN 65||PN 40||70.3|
|DN 80||PN 40||82.5|
|DN 100||PN 16||107.1|
|DN 125||PN 40||131.7|
- How Much Maintenance Does the Flow Meter Require?
Different factors influence the maintenance of the flow meter. Yet, one aspect is applying the correct flow meter with the right application. To fail, the proper flow meter to the correct application will result in device damage and breakage at any stage. As it consists of moving components, it requires more attention to maintenance than flow meters with no moving elements. Yet, all the flow meters need care in one way.
- The Lifespan of a Flow Meter
Do you know the lifespan of a flow meter? Every flowmeter has a different lifespan in terms of its uses. In some applications like gas, oil, and subsea, your flow meter must have a lifespan of up to 25 years with no possibility for maintenance. In other aSimplee devices with a 1 or 2 years lifespan are apt. When you compare the various flow meter technologies in other applications, analyze the maintenance and installation price. Yet, you also amortize the flow meter’s cost over its lifespan.
- B) What Is the Pressure Gauge?
It is the device that monitors the pressure level of the water. Yet, the water can pass via the distribution system because it is pressurized. If the fall flows, water may barely trickle out of the faucet at the customer level. The change in pressure may cause problems at various stages in a municipality’s water collection, distribution, and treatment system.
Yet, the central hole covers could burst out of place if the pressure is too high. The fixtures and plumbing also destroy or damage the residential, commercial, and industrial properties.
How to Select the Correct Pressure Gauge?
There are numerous items to assume while picking the correct pressure gauge. Here are some crucial parameters to consider before choosing the best pressure gauge.
It depends on how critical precision measurement is to your application. Yet, checking the water pressure gauge accuracy is high enough to stop the incorrect reading with little pressure changes that are preferred to be detected. Yet, note that your choice of measuring the range indirectly affects the precision of the pressure gauge.
- Measuring the range:
Water pressure gauges are mainly chosen based on the operating pressure range of the process. The range is defined from zero to maximum pressure. Yet, this range appears on the indicator scale. The indicator scale partly explains the chosen measuring range.
The scale division is the size of the unit change that can be read from the indicator. Yet, when selecting the water pressure gauge, set the maximum pressure that is too near and fit for your application. A meter with a total pressure range that is too high for the application will be wrong or incorrect in measurement.
- Type, connection size, and location.
There is various connection size for water pressure gauges. The dimension of the water pressure gauge is measured in inches. The connection size selection is vital, whether the pipe is minor or the holding socket for the water pressure gauge already exists. The connection kind is more critical than the size of the pressure gauge. Yet, having an external thread cylinder connection is prevalent that permits easy replacement. The connection location must be above, below, or behind the pressure gauge. Your application space needs may affect the connection location.
- Maximum operating temperature
Most water pressure gauge works within the 60 to 80-degree centigrade maximum temperature range. Some water pressure gauge is precise for high-temperature application.
- Unit of measurement:
There are various pressure measurement units. These are
- Standard Atmosphere
- Bar and Pascal.
Most pressure measurement devices have two units on the indicator. Yet, check to make sure you chose the version with the unit you are most comfortable with.
- Digital Reading
It is the choice to display the measured water pressure by the pressure gauge digitally. Consider this if you require this, and remember it requires the power to work. Yet, most water pressure gauges have a digital sensor. They do not need any external ability to perform their actions.
- IP protection:
In pressure gauges, the IP code is very vital. Yet, it’s essential, mainly when you use the water pressure gauge in conditions with condensation, dust, and water splashes. A more excellent IP rating will also mean a fantastic price for the indicator.
Applications of Pressure Gauges
- Irrigation and sprinkler system:
Water pressure gauges show the pressure in the garden’s sprinkler system or the farm’s irrigation system.
- Pool filter pressure gauge:
The pool filter water gauge aids in maintaining track of the pressure changes within the pool system. Yet, a bottom line pressure reading, high pressure usually shows the filter requires cleaning. Yet, the low pressure at the bottom line indicates the stream issues.
- Detection of the leakages:
Water pressure gauges were installed in the closed water loops. These are process lines or heating circuits to show the leakage in the circuits.
- Measuring tank volume with pressure:
It helps track the water volume in the open column or vertical water tank. Yet, the change in the pressure will show discharge or refill of the water from or to the tank.
- Well, Pressure:
The homes with fresh water from the well use water pressure gauges to know when a little well pressure is. This will help design another water source or drill another well.
Pressure Gauge Ranges
|-15 to 0||-10 to 0||0 to 10||0 to 15|
|0 to 30||0 to 60||0 to 100||0 to 160|
|0 to 200||0 to 300||0 to 400||0 to 600|
|0 to 1,000||0 to 1600||0 to 3,000||0 to 5,000|
|0 to 6,000||0 to 10,000||0 to 16,000||0 to 20,000|
|-1 to 0||-0.6 to 0||0 to 0.6||0 to 1|
|0 to 1.6||0 to 2.5||0 to 4||0 to 6|
|0 to 10||0 to 16||0 to 25||0 to 40|
|0 to 60||0 to 100||0 to 160||0 to 250|
|0 to 400||0 to 600||0 to 1000||0 to 1600|
Types of Pressure Gauges
Many types of pressure gauges are classified according to the following:
- Gauge pressure measuring device
- Absolute pressure gauge
- Differential pressure gauge
Gauge Pressure Measuring Device:
The pressure gauge is determined by applying the standard atmospheric pressure at the sea level as a reference. Yet, it’s negative when the pressure gauge falls below the atmospheric pressure. Yet, it is positive when the pressure gauge exceeds the air pressure.
A bourdon tube pressure gauge is a popular device for calculating gauge pressure. Yet, it is a mechanical device made of a C-shaped tub. This C-shaped tube is sealed at one end. The sealed end can rotate a pointer along a scale according to the pressure within the tube, which enters from the open end. Yet, the other mechanical devices that may determine gauge pressure involve bellows and diaphragm. The U-tube manometer is influential among the hydrostatic tubes.
Absolute pressure gauge
This pressure is determined by comparing it to the pressure in a vacuum. In the entire vacuum, there is no pressure. That’s why it is referred to as absolute pressure.
A measuring cell isolated by the diaphragm builds up a conventional mechanical absolute pressure gauge in this gauge. The reference chamber, a vacuum, is one element of the device. This pressure can also be measured with a barometer. Yet, this barometer is the hydrostatic gauge.
Differential pressure Gauge
The difference between the two valves is considered the differential pressure. It offers no data about the pressure levels at the two specific places it relates.
The mechanical differential pressure gauge is the typical kind of differential pressure gauge. Yet, the bellow diaphragm style and piston style differential pressure gauge is the standard form of this type. Each state has a specific application in many industrial operations.
How to Inspect/Test The Pressure Gauge?
Separate the pressure gauge from the process valves or by removing the device from the process. Link the gauge to the reference gauge or calibrator. Yet, for the hydraulic pressure gauges, it’s vital to remove any gas that would be trapped in the fluid gauge. Calibrate and link by the priming system when the creating pressure permits a few moments for stability. Compare the gauge’s reading under the test with the calibrator or master gauge.
For the hydraulic pressure gauges, it is vital to prime the framework. Utilizing a water-driven hand pump as a source can require a few minutes for the pressure to balance out because of the thermodynamic impact of liquids. Compare the inspecting of the measure under test with the calibrator or master gauge.