What is a Gate Valve? Types, Parts and Working of Gate Valve.

In this blog post, you’ll read:Valves are a vital element in plumbing. Without valves, plumbing is hard to crack. Gate valves are such a type of plumbing valve. It is pretty popular in industries and for heavy-duty purposes. Gate valves have different structural adaptations than small shutoff valves. Let's discuss its details and get a thorough insight into it.
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Valves are a vital element in plumbing. Without valves, plumbing is hard to crack. Gate valves are such a type of plumbing valve. It is pretty popular in industries and for heavy-duty purposes. Gate valves have different structural adaptations than small shutoff valves. Let’s discuss its details and get a thorough insight into it.

What is a Brass Gate Valve?

Gate valves work by sliding a blocking element. When it slides before the opening, it stops water or liquids from flowing. Gate valves work as regulatory valves. They either allow or block the liquid flow. These valves come with high-range specifications.   Preferably perfect for extreme conditions.

Brass Gate valves can endure high temperatures and high-pressure ranges. Due to their linear flow, we also term them linear valves. They are resistant to decaying elements. Therefore, it is best suitable for use in industries. Typically, they go for automotive industries, pharmaceuticals, oil, and marine operations.

Specifications of Gate Valves: 

Below are the specifications of the gate valves.

Product:             Brass PPR Industrial Gate Valve.
Body Material:  Cast Iron, Ductile Iron.
Disc Material:   EPDM,  Ductile Iron.
Stem Material:  SS420/431
Flange:               ASME/ANSI
Size:                    1/2″-2″ to 24″.
Max Pressure:  PN 10/16
Max Temperature: 80°C.
Applications:      Water Industrial use,  Fire Fighting, Heavy Duty purposes.
Gate valve specifications

Types of Gate Valves:

Gate valves come in various types as per their stricture and functions. Here are the top-in-use types of Gate valves.

  1. Flexible Wedge Gate Valve: The wedge is the disc that provides or blocks the fluid flow. Flexible wedge gate valves consist of a disc cut along its parameter and a single piece. The cut in its structure is responsible for providing more reliable strength. Cut length directly affects the performance of the gate. The narrow cut gives more power by lowering the flexibility range. Yet, the deeper cuts on the wedge result in good flexibility but poor strength.

Flexible wedge gate valves have a leakproof structure. They are so good at it that they go best for steam operations. It has efficient endurance to deal with thermal explosions and blinding. However, the only problem with flexible wedges is that they get corrosion due to fluid collection in the disk.

  • Solid Wedge Gate Valve: Solid wedge gates have a defining structure. They are the most common operational gate valves. Their popularity is due to their robust nature. The advantage of using this valve is that we can orient it in any position, as it works well in all directions. Also, it can endure a range of fluids, even in a turbulent flow.

A solid wedge has a fixed structure. It means we cannot change its seat alignment in the case of pressure loads. This problem can cause chances of leaks in the valve. Solid wedge gate valves have a design that works under moderate pressure and temperature. Because high temperature can cause expansion of the metal that is a stuck wedge in the seat, we refer to this phenomenon as thermal locking.

gate valve and butterfly valve diagram
gate valve and butterfly valve diagram
  • Split Wedge Gate Valve: Unlike the above two types, this type contains two disks parallel with a structure that holds them. The discs can be either parallel or wedge-type. Parallel discs give better sealing due to their connection with the seat through a spring. In contrast, split wedge-type gate valves can handle fluids at even high temperatures.

The disc has such an alignment that it prevents thermal blinding. It happens when high-temperature media flows through the valve. High temperatures can cause the metal to expand, which can sometimes collapse, but this structure easily handles it.

  • Rising Stem Gate Valve: This type follows the operational category of gate valve. When we open the valve, the stem in its structure goes upward. Similarly, in case of closing, the stem will move down. A portion of the stem is always in constant contact with flowing media. The opening of the valve forces the handwheel to rise with the branch.
  • Non-Rising Stem Gate Valve: The valve in this type has a disc with internal threading. There does not exist a rising stem mechanism. When we rotate the stem, the disc moves alongside like a nut. Stem threads are in direct contact with the fluids flowing across.

Non-rising stem gate valve is also known as an inside screw valve. It takes less space for the movement of the disc. This structure is highly adaptive to prevent corrosion and wear.

Gate Valve and Types of Gate Valve – A detailed Explanation from HardHat Engineer

How Does Gate Valve Work?

We have discussed different types of gate valves above. There are various structural and operational types of gate valves. Yet, their working principle remains the same for every type. It follows a simple and easy method of working.

Brass Gate valves come with handwheels. To close the valve, we turn it clockwise until it is closed. It will result in lowering the stem at the seat along the valve. Now, the opening is blocked. There should be no liquid flowing across the valve. If you wish to save the gate valve from tearing, avoid putting unusual pressure when closing it.

Now, the opening of the valve follows the reverse process. One should rotate the handwheel in the anti-clockwise direction. Also, remember not to exert pressure, as excessive force can damage the internal structure of the gate valve.

The user should follow general prevention while operating the valve. It can help increase life span as mostly the mistakes while opening and closing can create troubles. If there feels pressure on the valve while operating, you can loosen the but on top of the body. It helps reduce stress. At the same time, it saves the stem and disc from facing damage. But it would help if you revise the nut to its old position once it is fully open.

 The gate valves generally work as shutoff valves, either fully open or closed. Therefore, keeping them in semi-open positions is not admiring. The water flow through the gate valve has maximum space, and slight pressure acts on it. In the case of throttling, the semi-open function can work. But on the other hand, it causes the backflow of fluids. This backflow results in damaging the quality of the valve. Hence, it is better to avoid this state.

double disc rising stem gate valve
Double disc rising stem gate valve

Actuation Methods Of Gate Valves: 

We commonly operate brass gate valves using the following three methods.

  • Manual Operation: This is the most traditional way of operating gate valves. A user actuates the valve using a handwheel at the top. It requires on-site operation manually to work. We occasionally use gate valves, so manual actuation is the most economical type.
  • Electric Operation: These gate valves do not have a hand wheel. Instead, there lies an electric motor instead of a wheel. The stem raises and lowers using the electrical power of the valve and hence operates the valve. These do not require a user to actuate the valve; instead, electric power is enough.
  •  Pneumatic Operation: Pneumatic valves use compressed air to actuate valves. In such cases, compressed air raises the stem to open the valve and vice versa. A pneumatic actuator lies in place of the handwheel or the electric motor. It does not require a user or electric power. Instead, it only needs a pneumatic system.
plumberstar gate valve
Plumberstar gate valve

Applications of Gate Valves: 

Gate valves are more comprehensive and, therefore, available in ranges. They are good to go with the control of liquids and gases. They show acceptable performance when handling slurries, powders, and granules. Besides this, they can provide vacuum services.

Brass Gate valves gave industrial applications. We use them in oil, pharmaceutical, marine, had, manufacturing, automobile industries, etc. Gate valves are perfect for extreme conditions. They can endure high pressure and temperature. That’s why industries are in high demand for this product.

Non-rising stem valves take less space for operation. We often see them in marine and underground applications. Power plants also use these valves due to their corrosion resistance and service quality. Due to their range of types, we can say that gate valves have hundreds of applications.

gate valves plumberstar
Gate valves Plumberstar

Parts of Gate Valves:

Every part of a gate valve is responsible for proper functioning. Let’s discuss the parts of the gate valves that make up its structure.

  • Gate: The gate works by ensuring high-end sealing for leaks. Gates are mostly either wedge or similar types. A knife-type gate is also an example. These gates provide enough space for liquid to flow. When they are closed by turning the wheel, they block liquid. Different structures of gates have different applications.
  • Stem: Stem plays a central role in the gate valve operation. It contains a threaded system. We lower the gate valve with the help of raising the stem. A manual wheel can help relocate the stem. A stem can be either rising or non-rising. Rising stems are good for manual handling. The non-rising stem is suitable for underground appliances.
  • Bonnets: Bonnets in a gate valve are responsible for protection against leaks. We can remove and replace bonnets if they get out of order. They have different types.

Screw-in bonnets are wide in use and most simple in structure. They provide leakproof structures in relatively small valves. For high-pressure sealing in large valves, we use Bolt bonnets.

copper gate valves from china
copper gate valves from China

Some gate valves need regular maintenance. Union bonnets are best for such use. They have a union nut that holds the bonnet in place. It keeps bonnet quality up to the mark when frequently removed for inspection.

  • Seat: The seat is another essential part of gate valves. The seat can be either fixed on the stem or ring based. Seat rings facilitate better for high-temperature conditions. Wedge-type gate valves have mostly metal seats. Resilient seats are also present, even better for tight closures.

Pros and Cons Of Gate Valves: 

Gate valves have a bidirectional feature. We can operate them from both directions.We cannot use gate valves for regulation purposes.
They provide reliable flow shutoff.Dual sealing surfaces make it difficult to maintain the valve.
It requires a minimum amount of torque to open it close the valve.They are vibration sensitive in some cases.
Gate valves offer less resistance to flowing media.Opening and closing gate valves take time.
High Endurance level. 
Gate valve details

Buy Premium Quality Gate Valves from Plumberstar.


From the above details, it is evident that gate valves are versatile. They perform multiple roles with the best efficiency. They are a feast for industries that require stress-managing valves. Gate valves fit on such sites demanding high strength. Their simple structure makes them highly desirable for use.

The types and working mechanism of gate valves depict their performance graph. They are highly trusted and recommended by users. If you are planning to buy gate valves, check them out here.

AvailableMedium: oil, mud, gas and water
ProductSpecificationLevel: PSL1~PSL4
PerformanceRequirementsLevel: PR1~PR2
MaterialClass: AA~FF
EndConnections: flange, threaded, welding, clamp, union, etc.

On-off mode: manual drive, hydraulic operated, etc.
Valve structure: rising stem,non-rising stem,

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